Welding – Elena

Welding, technique used for joining metallic parts usually through the application of heat.

Peoples discover this technique during efforts to manipulate iron into useful shapes. People found Weld blades in the 1st millennium CE. The most famous being those produced by Arab armourers at Damascus, Syria. We know the process of carburization of iron to produce hard steel at this time. But the resultant steel was very brittle. The welding technique—which involved interlayering relatively soft and tough iron with high-carbon material, followed by hammer forging—produced a strong, tough blade.

The development of modern welding technology

In modern times the improvement in iron-making techniques, especially the introduction of cast iron, restricted welding to the blacksmith and the jeweler. Other joining techniques, such as fastening by bolts or rivets. We applie those others joining techniques to new products, from bridges and railway engines to kitchen utensils.

Other welding types

Modern fusion welding processes are an outgrowth of the need to obtain a continuous joint on large steel plates. It shows that rivetting has disadvantages, especially for an enclosed container such as a boiler.

Gas welding, arc welding, and resistance welding all appeared at the end of the 19th century. During World War I, we made the first real attempt to adopt welding processes on a wide scale. People well develop the oxyacetylene process in 1916, then still use the welding techniques. The main improvements since then have been in equipment and safety. Arc welding, using a consumable electrode, was also introduced in this period, but the bare wires initially used produced brittle welds. We found that wrapping the bare wire with asbestos and an entwined aluminum wire can solve this problem. The modern electrode, introduced in 1907, consists of a bare wire with a complex coating of minerals and metals.

Before World War II we not use arc welding frecuently. When the urgent need for rapid means of construction for shipping, power plants, transportation, and structures spurred the necessary development work.

Arc welding

Resistance welding, invented in 1877 by Elihu Thomson, was accepted long before arc welding for spot and seam joining of sheet. During the 1920s develops butt welding for chain making and joining bars and rods. In the 1940s the tungsten-inert gas process, introduces using a nonconsumable tungsten electrode to perform fusion welds. In 1948, a new gas shielding process utilized the welding wire consumed in the welding wire. More recently, we develop electron-beam welding, laser welding, and several solid-phase processes such as diffusion bonding, friction welding, and ultrasonic joining.

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