Detailed laser cutting process
Process Description: The laser cutting process uses the energy released by the laser beam to illuminate the surface of the metal sheet to melt and evaporate the metal. The laser source is generally a carbon dioxide laser beam with an operating power of 500 to 2,500 watts. This level of power is lower than that required by many domestic electric heaters, but the laser beam is concentrated in a small area by lenses and mirrors. The high concentration of energy enables rapid local heating to evaporate the metal. In addition, since the energy is very concentrated, only a small amount of heat is transferred to other parts of the metal, and the deformation is small or no deformation.
The laser use to cut the complex shape of the blank very accurately, and the cut blank does not need further process.
Compare with other thermal cutting methods, laser cutting characterize by high cutting speed and high quality. Specifically summarize as the following aspects
1, good cutting quality
Laser cutting can achieve better cutting quality due to the small laser spot, high energy density and fast cutting speed.
1 The laser cutting slit is narrow, the slits are parallel and perpendicular to the surface. And the dimensional accuracy of the cut parts can reach ±0.05mm.
2 The cutting surface is smooth and beautiful, the surface roughness is only a few tens of microns, and even laser cutting use as the last process. No machining require, and the parts can use directly.
3 After the cut by the laser, the width of the heat-affected zone is small, the performance of the material near the slit is almost unaffecte, and the deformation of the workpiece is small, the cutting precision is high, the geometry of the slit is good, and the shape of the slit cross-section is relatively regular. Rectangular.
2, high cutting efficiency
Due to the transmission characteristics of the laser, the laser cutting machine is generally equip with multiple numerical control worktables, and the entire cutting process can realize numerical control. During operation, it is only necessary to change the numerical control program to apply the cutting of different shapes of parts, which can perform two-dimensional cutting and three-dimensional cutting.
3, cutting speed
Cutting a 2mm thick low carbon steel plate with a power of 1200W, the cutting speed can reach 600cm/min; cutting a 5mm thick polypropylene resin plate, the cutting speed can reach 1200cm/min. The material does not need clamping and fixing during laser cutting, which saves the fixture and saves the auxiliary time of loading and unloading.
4, non-contact cutting
There is no contact between the torch and the workpiece during laser cutting, and there is no tool wear. To machine parts of different shapes, there is no need to change the “tool”. Just change the output parameters of the laser. The laser cutting process has low noise, low vibration and no pollution.
5, the variety of cutting materials
Compared with oxyacetylene cutting and plasma cutting. There are many types of laser cutting materials, including metal, non-metal, metal-based and non-metal matrix composites. Leather, wood and fiber. However, for different materials. Due to their different thermophysical properties and different absorption rates of laser light, different laser cutting exhibite adaptability .